July '21

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2 4 G R A P H I C S P R O J U L Y 2 0 2 1 G R A P H I C S - P R O. C O M Most fonts, or type styles, include both upper- and lowercase characters. The baseline is typically at the bottom edge of uppercase letters, usually determined by the capital A or R, and is at the bottom edge of lowercase letter body. Rounded letters such as O, C, U, G, J, S, U, and Q will extend slightly beyond the baseline for visual appearance. Many lowercase letters have ascend- ers and descenders that also extend past the base- line. Figure 6 should help you understand the basic principles of typography. Ascenders and descenders are the parts of a lower- case letter that either rise above the X-line or drop below the baseline. The study of typographic anal- ysis far exceeds the space limitations of this article but is advantageous for any graphic designer. As a sign painter and calligrapher, I have found that understanding the ba- sics of alphabet construction has been a major help to my endeavors. Most quality fonts follow the basics of construction, but some "grunge" fonts on the internet ignore the basic principles and may in- clude viruses. These fonts require some discretion when used. SNAP TO The next major alignment feature is the Snap To abilities of the program. Several options are available as shown in Figure 7. We'll briefly look at each. Pixels only relates to bitmap images and is usually ignored. Document Grid has to do with a rectangular grid displayed when enabled. Baseline Grid is related to text and is, unless needed, not enabled. Guidelines is often re- quired when snapping objects to a guideline. Objects is, as suspect- ed, to snap things to existing objects. Page is seldom enabled, but in rare instances may be of value. Most often, I enable Snap to Objects and, if needed, Snap to Guidelines. These are most valuable to me. To create a horizon- tal guideline, left click on the top ruler and drag down. With it selected, you can type a precise position. A vertical guide- line is dragged from the left ruler in a sim- ilar fashion. Guidelines act as most other objects and can be rotated when needed by typing a value in the task bar rotation field or by second clicking to get rotation handles and rotating them as needed. They are easily deleted when you need to remove one or all. Select the guideline and press delete. A recent perspective drawing project required one guideline at 20 degrees, another at 338 degrees, and a third at 8 degrees. Typing in a specific val- ue in the rotation field sets the guideline to a determined angle. I was then able to add perspective following my guidelines for the needed appearance in my drawing. Note: I have explored the Perspective abilities of the program, including one- point and two-point perspective. Anyone who has, or has not, learned the basics of Perspective in an engineering class or an art class will be particularly intrigued by the abilities of CorelDR AW in creating per- spective designs. It's a whole new realm of drawing three-dimensional images. The inclusion of the ability to add perspective and envelopes to bitmaps, beginning with the 2018 release of the program, is of great advantage to anyone who needs it. When you right-click on either rul- er, you get a small dialog to choose Grid setup, Ruler setup, or Guideline setup — each of these opens a dia- log box or docker to specify preferences for each. Choose your preferences here. Go to View>Grid>Document Grid or View>Grid>Baseline Grid to enable the appropriate grid for your purposes. Under the Ruler setup, there is a button to set a drawing scale. I have found this to Figure 6. Figure 7.

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